Informe de la Misión de Monitoreo Reactivo del Sitio de Patrimonio Mundial Iglesias de Chiloé
El documento valora los avances de Chile en materia de restauración de los templos y definición de zonas de amortiguamiento adecuadas al entorno y el paisaje que rodean las iglesias, y realiza una serie de recomendaciones a cumplir al año 2015.
Nuestro país ha recibido el informe de la Misión de Monitoreo Reactivo al Sitio del Patrimonio Mundial Iglesias de Chiloé, realizada en diciembre pasado por los expertos de Icomos, Betina Adams, y del Centro del Patrimonio Mundial de la Unesco, César Moreno-Triana, en cumplimiento de la decisión del Comité de Patrimonio Mundial de Unesco en su 37ª sesión ordinaria (Nom Pen, Camboya, 2013).
El informe valora que nuestro país ha avanzado en los estudios para la definición de zonas de amortiguamiento adecuadas, de acuerdo a las características del entorno y paisaje de las 16 Iglesias de Chiloé. Ahora bien, señala que se mantiene la urgencia de definir efectivamente el entorno de cada uno de los componentes de la serie y adoptar las requeridas zonas de amortiguamiento y medidas regulatorias. Asimismo, señala que se ha realizado un considerable esfuerzo en relación a la conservación de las iglesias, logrando establecer equipos especializados en restauración.
Con respecto al centro comercial de Castro, ubicado cerca de una de los más importantes y significativos componentes del este sitio seriado, la Misión concluye que afecta su “valor universal excepcional” y causa un impacto negativo sobre el entorno de la iglesia, lo que va en detrimento del escenario de Castro y de la silueta o perfil de la meseta fundacional. Los expertos señalan que el mall probablemente exacerbará actuales condiciones que afectan este componente de la serie, especialmente acerca de la generación de flujo de tráfico e inestabilidad en la estructura de la iglesia.
Las recomendaciones de la Misión apuntan a: centrarse en una definición de las características del entorno y de las zonas de amortiguamiento; actualizar y reforzar las medidas legislativas y regulatorias; perfeccionar los sistemas de conservación del bien, e indicar medidas para mitigar el impacto del mall de Castro, a evaluar por los organismos asesores (Icomos e Iccrom).
La misión concluye que si Chile no implementa estas medidas para el 1 de febrero de 2015, el Comité del Patrimonio Mundial nos podría considerar la potencial inscripción del bien en la Lista de Patrimonio en Peligro, en su 39 sesión en junio de 2015.
El informe de la Misión y la documentación que remitió nuestro país, en febrero pasado, serán insumos básicos del informe del estado de conservación, con el respectivo proyecto de decisión, a elaborar por el Centro del Patrimonio Mundial junto a Icomos, para consideración y resolución del Comité del Patrimonio Mundial de la Unesco, en su próxima reunión ordinaria a realizarse en junio de este año.
“El informe de la Misión constituye un importante aliciente para perseverar en el trabajo actualmente en curso en el marco del plan de protección integral para las 16 Iglesias de Chiloé”, señaló el arquitecto Christian Matzner, encargado del Área de Patrimonio Mundial e Internacional del Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales (CMN). Este plan incluye la definición y estudio de “Áreas Preliminares de Protección” (APP), conducentes a la posterior declaratoria de los entornos de las iglesias como Zonas Típicas en el marco de Ley N° 17.288 de MN, trabajo que se implementa coordinadamente con los respectivos municipios, la Seremi Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (Minvu), la Fundación Amigos Iglesias de Chiloé y la comunidad local.
El Comité del Patrimonio Mundial es la instancia resolutiva de la Convención del Patrimonio Mundial de la Unesco, y está conformado por 21 países miembros que se eligen por periódicamente.
Se adjunta el informe original en inglés de la Misión de Monitoreo Reactivo, y un resumen del mismo traducido al castellano, así como las Declaraciones Retrospectivas de Valor Universal de los Sitios del Patrimonio Mundial de Chile.
La Misión de Monitoreo Reactivo de las Iglesias de Chiloé fue organizada por el Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales con la colaboración de Cancillería, del administrador del sitio -Fundación Amigos Iglesias de Chiloé-, la Gobernación y la Comisión Asesora de Monumentos Nacionales de la Provincia de Chiloé.
El programa contempló una jornada explicativa en la sede de la Fundación, exposiciones del CMN y de la Municipalidad de Castro; recorridos peatonales, en lancha y aéreos; encuentros con las comunidades locales en las iglesias visitadas; reuniones con la Gobernación, la Subdere Región de Los Lagos, la Seremi Minvu, el Colegio de Arquitectos de Chile, la empresa Pasmar, y organizaciones ciudadanas en contra y a favor del Mall Paseo Chiloé.
La delegación nacional que acompañó la Misión, en diciembre del año pasado, fue encabezada por Emilio De la Cerda, Secretario Ejecutivo del CMN, y la integraron Loreto Torres, Consejera representante del Minvu ante el CMN; Cristián Larrère, Director Ejecutivo de la Fundación de Amigos de las Iglesias de Chiloé (Faich); Falastin Shakhtur, de la Dirección de Política Multilateral del Minrel; Christian Matzner, Felipe Montiel, Magdalena Novoa y Loreto Mancilla, profesionales de la Secretaría Ejecutiva del CMN.
REPORT ON THE JOINT – WHC / ICOMOS REACTIVE MONITORING
MISSION TO THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY
CHURCHES OF CHILOÉ (CHILE)
3 – 6 December 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................................... 4
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................ 4
1. BACKGROUND TO THE MISSION .................................................................................... 7
1.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................ 7
1.2. Criteria of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV): (2000, Nomination file) ................... 7
1.3. Conservation and Authenticity ................................................................................... 7
1.4. Integrity ...................................................................................................................... 8
1.5. State of Conservation ................................................................................................ 8
1.6. Justification of the mission......................................................................................... 9
2. NATIONAL POLICY FOR THE PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE WORLD
HERITAGE PROPERTY ........................................................................................................ 10
2.1. Heritage national legislation .................................................................................... 10
2.2. Complementary legislation ...................................................................................... 10
2.3. Churches of Chiloe: Protection and definition of “Typical Zones” ............................ 11
2.4. Municipal Regulations ............................................................................................. 11
2.5. Institutional framework and management structure................................................. 12
2.6. Findings of the mission ............................................................................................ 12
3. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES / THREATS .................................... 13
3.1. Wider settings of the property.................................................................................. 13
3.1.1. Complementary technical suggestions ........................................................... 14
3.1.2. Mission findings .............................................................................................. 15
3.1.3. Brief characteristics of the property ................................................................ 15
3.2. Definition of Boundaries of the buffer zones (Figures 4) ......................................... 16
3.2.1. Preliminary approach of a concept for the protection of the wider setting ...... 17
3.3. Shopping mall in construction and administrative procedures ................................ 18
3.3.1. Local regulatory matters....................................................................18
3.3.2. Current Situation ............................................................................................. 19
3.3.3. Responsibility of the State Party ..................................................................... 19
3.4. Municipal and Civil society initiatives and reactions regarding the Mall .................. 20
3.5. Findings of the mission ............................................................................................ 21
4. ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF CONSERVATION OF THE PROPERTY ................. 22
5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................. 25
5.1. General Considerations ........................................................................................... 25
5.2. Conclusions ............................................................................................................. 26
REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 28
Annex 1: Illustrations ......................................................................................................... 30
Annex 2: Terms of reference ............................................................................................. 43
Annex 3: Decisions of the World Heritage Committee ...................................................... 44
Annex 4: Itinerary and programme .................................................................................... 45
Annex 5: List and contact details of people met ................................................................ 48
Annex 6: Maps with the boundaries proposed by National Monuments Council – CMN .. 49
Annex 7: Press .................................................................................................................. 50
GLOSSARY OF ABREVIATIONS
CMN – Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales / National Monuments Council
FUNDAICH - Fundación Amigos de las Iglesias de Chiloé) / Foundation Friends of the
Churches of Chiloé
OUV – Outstanding Universal Value
The members of the mission wish to express their gratitude to the National Monuments Council
(CMN - Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales), particularly to its Executive Secretary Mr Emilio De la
Cerda and his team, as well as to Mr Christian Matzner Thomsen, responsible for International and
World Heritage, for his technical assistance and excellent organization of the Mission. Special
thanks goes also to Mr Cristian Larrére Wörner, Executive Director from the Foundation Friends of
the Churches for Chiloé (FUNDAICH – Fundación Amigos de las Iglesias de Chiloé), Mr Felipe
Montiel Vera, responsible for CMN in the Province of Chiloé, the Municipality and the Municipal
Council of the Province, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism and the
Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
The mission team also wishes to thank the owners and users of the serial property, the ecclesiastic structure, represented by the bishop of Ancud, the parish priest of the Church of San Francisco of Castro, for their warm welcome, the College of Architects of Chile and ICOMOS Chile whose contributions were fundamental to better understand the situation and the current conservation issues at the property.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS
The “Churches of Chiloé” represent an exceptional example in Latin America of an outstanding form
of ecclesiastical wooden architecture, which consists in a religious system of 16 components, with spiritual, physical, social and historical dimensions. The Outstanding Universal Value is recognized for the unique form of the wooden architecture of the churches, built within a framework of “Circular Missions”, which was introduced by the Jesuits in the 17th century. The location of the churches is strongly related to the sea. They were built with the intention to be seen from the sea by navigators and also to be accessed by sea.
The selection of the 16 churches is characterised by the unified typology of its architecture,
composing elements and function, which are located in different settings, both urban and rural, each
one with specific solutions for the location of its elements. Nature prevails and is a dominant aspect
for the whole property, which justifies the necessity of large and well-studied boundaries for the
buffer zones of each church. Its main component is the Church of Castro, located in the City of
Castro, considered along with Santiago and La Serena, as one of the first cities founded in Chile,
which maintains its original location. Castro had a strategic function and for some time was the most southern city of the Americas. There the missionaries settled their headquarters. From Castro they made the evangelization that covered not only the archipelago of Chiloe but also the southern part of South America.
The “Churches of Chiloé” were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000, by Decision 24COM
X.C.1. VIII.C on the basis of criteria (ii) and (iii). The Retrospective Statement of Outstanding
Universal Value of the property was adopted at the 37th Session of the World Heritage Committee
in June 2013 (Decision 37 COM 8E). The World Heritage Committee examined the state of
conservation of the property at its 37th session and by Decision 37 COM 7B.94 (Phnom Penh,
2013) regretted that the shopping mall was constructed, given its impact on the setting and skyline
of Castro and so, decided to send, as soon as possible, a joint WHC/ICOMOS reactive monitoring
mission to assess the overall state of conservation of the property, and in particular the issues
concerning the definition of the characteristics of the wider setting for all component parts, in relation to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, and to examine the appropriate protection measures, including the review of the buffer zones and regulatory measures for the protection of the setting of the Churches of Chiloe.
In conformity with its terms of reference, the mission visited and assessed the state of conservation
of the property. The construction of the Mall of Castro was specifically addressed given its potential
impacts on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. (See Annex 2: Terms of Reference of
The main findings of the mission:
In regard to the characteristics of a wider setting, the State Party has advanced studies for
the definition of the adequate delimitation of its Buffer Zones, nevertheless it is still urgent to
define the wider setting of each of its components and to adopt the required buffer zones
and regulatory measures;
There has been a considerable effort in the restoration and conservation of the churches,
with the achievement of specialized restoration teams;
The importance of the churches as dominant presence in the landscape is fundamental. This
aspect, present at the time of the nomination, was reinforced in the Retrospective Statement
of Outstanding Universal Value adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session
The Mall that is being constructed in Castro by PASMAR, near one of the most important
and significant components of the property, affects the Outstanding Universal Value of the
property and causes a negative impact over the wider setting of the church, which is
detrimental to the setting of Castro and the skyline of the foundational plateau. The shopping
mall would probably exacerbate current conditions that affect this component part of the
property, especially in regard to the generation of additional traffic flow and instability in the
structure of the church.
Definition of the characteristics of the wider setting and Buffer zones
Submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1st February 2015, for review by the Advisory
Bodies, a Minor Boundary Modification for the property, in line with the procedures and
requirements set up on the Operational Guidelines, to establish a final proposal for the
buffer zones and wider setting for each of the components of the property. The
documentation should include precise boundaries delimited in maps with the definition of
the characteristics of each zone, as well as the related regulatory measures to ensure
proper protection of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property;
These proposals should be preceded by detailed technical studies considering territory
values (such as landscape, geography, setting, water edge); remaining constructed
values located in the vicinity of the property and identified through an inventory;
aesthetical questions (such as views and construction mass); functional values, including
valuation of possible uses, as well as intangible values and practices that guarantee the
continuity of the integration of the property in the communal life;
Protect, as soon as possible, the valuable elements that were identified through the
inventory in order to guarantee the surrounding context of the properties’ value that is
recognized at international level;
Protect the surrounding areas, including the immediate zones with vernacular
architecture, the buffer zones and the wider setting composed by the natural landscape;
Adopt, as preliminary boundaries, the delimitation proposed by CMN until the studies
mentioned above are concluded. The Mission has made some technical suggestions that
are registered in the report regarding the enlargement of some areas in order to consider
Chiloe’s’ outstanding cultural landscape; the tides whose large variation, make them part
of the communities’ economic survival and the visibility of the property, in special the
dominance of the towers of the churches.
Update and enforce legislative and regulatory measures
Finalize the appropriate legislative measures to ensure the protection of the property
through the legal regulations of the buffer zones and submission to the World Heritage;
Submit for review by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session, in 2015, a set of
legal and administrative measures to ensure the protection of the Outstanding Universal
Value of the property;
Reinforce the role of the National Monuments Council and its Executive Secretary, and
identify mechanisms to ensure an appropriate coordination with other administrative
levels and sectors (such as urbanism, tourism, education);
Identify and put in place management arrangements for all the 16 components of the
property in order to avoid impacts due the increasing development of the cities, such as
the impact on its landscape, visibility and of harmful uses located in vicinity areas (such
as density, traffic, pollution...);
As a precautionary principle, hold all on-going or planned development projects until
these measures have not been effectively put in place;
Recommend the establishment of a management plan for the serial property as a whole,
with emphasis in the mutual cooperation with each community.
Conservation system of the property
Establish and implement a training programme for national and local experts in
Ensure that the schedule of financial resources being applied in the restoration works do
not harm the quality of the work performed and ensure a careful replacement of the
original material in wood;
Mall of Castro
Elaborate and submit a study of the potential impact of Traffic on the urban tissue and on
the structural stability of the Church of Castro, as the shopping mall will certainly
increase and generate great traffic flow, considering its local and regional scope;
Propose a Plan that contains measures to mitigate the impact of the mall on the property,
to be evaluated by the Advisory Bodies. The proposal should include architectural
proposals to better integrate the form and materials, with reduction of its mass and height
and take in account the size of Castro’s’ and Chiloe’s’ population, looking for a social-
economic balance of Castro’s’ urban core.
The mission concluded that if the State Party does not put these measures in place by 1 February
2015, the World Heritage Committee might consider the potential inscription of the property on the
List of World Heritage in Danger at its 39th Session in June 2015.
The mission finally considered that the construction of the Mall in Castro, located outside the buffer
zones established in the nomination, brings attention to the difficulties regarding the management of
World Heritage properties, in particular with regard to development projects.
1. BACKGROUND TO THE MISSION
The serial property “Churches of Chiloé” (Chile) was inscribed on the World Heritage List by the
World Committee at its 24th session in December 2000, on the category group of buildings. In 2001,
as a result of an administrative error, 2 churches were added to the original group of 14 churches.
The Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) for this property, adopted in
2013 by the World Heritage Committee, emphasizes that: (WHC-13/37.COM/8E p.149):
The churches were built within a framework of a “Circular Mission”, which resulted in a unique
form of wooden ecclesiastical architecture, the “Chilota School of Architecture”. The annual
missions, begun by the Jesuits in the 17th and continued with Franciscans during de 18th and
19th centuries, still prevail today;
The churches are significant for its building material, construction systems, carpentry work and
interiors, especially for its colours and religious images. The construction system is influenced
by the indigenous tradition building in wood and boat building techniques. The European
experience has been adapted and enabled a vernacular tradition which is still in use;
The location of the churches is related to the sea, to be seen by navigators and to prevent
flooding. The frontal esplanades function to integrate the activities of communities;
The mestizo culture, which resulted from the missionary activities, maintains strong intangible
values that can be seen in the communities’ religious and communal practices, which include
also the “minga” (unpaid community work);
The subsoil of the churches could present clues related to pre-Hispanic ritual sites.
1.2. Criteria of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV)
The Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value of the property was adopted by the
37th session of the World Heritage Committee in June 2013 (Decision 37 COM 8E) in parallel to the
Decision concerning the state of conservation of the property with the following criteria:
Criterion (ii): The Churches of Chiloé are outstanding examples of the successful fusion of
European and indigenous cultural traditions to produce a unique form of wooden architecture.
Criterion (iii): The mestizo culture resulting from Jesuit missionary activities in the 17th and 18th
centuries has survived intact in the Chiloé archipelago, and achieves its highest expression in the
outstanding wooden churches.
1.3. Conservation and Authenticity
At the time of nomination, ICOMOS noted that the churches were conserved continuously since
they were built, because of the close identification of the local communities with them. “Their
present form represents their original forms and materials, modified by progressive adaptations to
external cultural impacts but without damaging the integrity of what have retained over four
centuries their original function of worship.” (ICOMOS Evaluation, set, 2000. No 971, p.61)
In 2013, it was additionally noted, “The Churches of Chiloé present a high degree of authenticity in
terms of their forms and designs, materials and substances, and locations and settings. Their
architectural forms, materials and building systems constitute the zenith of a typological evolution,
and have been preserved without substantive changes. Their function as places of worship has also
been preserved. Interventions have retained all the richness of the typologies of connections, joints
and fittings; period technology has been recovered and applied; and exceptional combinations of
connections of a deeply local and singular character have been discovered. The traditions,
techniques and management systems have been maintained, as have the essential conditions of
the sites. Recent restorations have influenced a substantive reflection on the role of the intangible
A significant threat to the serial property is the lack of coherent buffer zones. This question was
addressed at the meeting of the Bureau in June 2000 and the nomination was referred back to the
State Party, requesting the definition of buffer zones around each of the churches and the definition
of standards of control over development within these zones. Furthermore at that time, six of the
churches were not statutorily protected. (ICOMOS Evaluation, set, 2000. No 971, p.61)
As part of the ICOMOS recommendations for future action, part of the same evaluation, it was
highlighted that no mention was made in the nomination dossier of the existence of buffer zones
around the defined protected areas. Also that there was no provision for the protection of buffer
zones in Law No 17,288, and none of the supplied copies of the listings of historic monuments
made any reference to a buffer zones. ICOMOS insisted that buffer zones are very important in
respect to this group of churches. The ICOMOS mission report emphasized the uncontrolled urban
development in a number of the settlements around churches such as those of Defit, Ichuac, and
Rilán and the adverse effect on their settings if there were not strict control rules over their
surroundings. It was also noted that it is essential that buffer zones need to be adequate to
conserve the settings of the churches, but also that there have to be defined standards, set by the
State Party, for the control of intervention within these zones.
In 2013 the vulnerability of the churches was emphasized once again, as they require constant
conservation efforts. The nature of its building material and the environmental characteristics make
continual maintenance an imperative. The communities themselves have always assured this
maintenance, but current phenomena associated with modernization and globalization has
increased the vulnerability of the churches. (WHC-13/37.COM.8E)
1.5. State of Conservation
There were two reports from the State Party, in 2003 and 2004, regarding conservation issues.
Restoration work has been on-going since 2001, with the restoration of the churches of Castro and
Dalcahue. In 2002, UNESCO provided financial assistance (US$ 50,000) for the restoration of the
Church of San Juan and to elaborate an emergency restoration plan for the complete site. World
Monuments Fund allocated US$ 350.000 for the restoration of Tenaún and the Chilean Government
allocated US$ 52.000 for a feasibility study for Colo and Chonchi.
Among the activities foreseen in the action plan, particular emphasis was given to the proyectos
transversales or crosscutting projects such as capacity building programs including seminars for
training carpenters, for the site guides and international symposia on restoration techniques, among
others. The report underlined that all the activities are implemented via Friends of the Chiloé
Churches Foundation (FUNDAICH - Fundación Amigos de las Iglesias de Chiloé), which is a non-
Since 2004, the Government of Chile, with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank
(loan of US$ 3 million), has implemented a large-scale program with the preview of the restoration
of the following churches:
2004 - Tenaun, Vilupuli, Quinchao, Aldachildo, Ichuac
2005 - Nercon, Rilán, Chelin
Caguach, Achao, Detif, Dalcahue
1.6. Justification for the mission
The nomination dossier considered only the churches themselves, including the esplanades related
to outdoor religious activities. The major problem to be faced is the threat of the existing constricted
boundaries, resulting in the vulnerable protection of the properties’ environment and setting, which
need to be established and guaranteed. This urgency was highlighted after the construction of a
shopping mall in the vicinity of the inscribed component of the Church of Castro. The architectural
characteristics of the new construction have made it into a dominant element of Castro’s landscape,
especially from the sea view, with great prejudice to the properties’ Outstanding Universal Value. In
February 2012, the World Heritage Centre received information about the construction of the
shopping mall. Technical information was requested from the State Party on 8 March of the same
year, which was replied by the State Party on 12 February 2013.
In the evaluation of the State of Conservation Report submitted to the World Heritage Committee at
its 37th session, it was mentioned that “The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies noted
that the buffer zones of the component parts of property are limited to encompass only the adjacent
square areas or plazas. In addition, there are no legal provisions or regulatory measures in place to
ensure the protection of the buffer zone and the setting of each of the inscribed components. It
should also be noted that there are no legal provisions requiring environmental or heritage impact
assessments for these types of constructions.
Moreover, the limited mandate of the National Monuments Council is insufficient to protect the
Outstanding Universal Value of the property in respect to developments within the setting of the
property. This lack of protection is reflected in the process that led to the approval of the
construction of the shopping mall at Castro, which has a significant negative impact on the visual
characteristics of the component part of the inscribed property and its context.” (WHC-
The World Heritage Committee, at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013), took note of the
comprehensive information submitted by the State Party but regretted that the shopping mall was
constructed, given its impact on the setting and skyline of Castro and requested the State Party to
invite, as soon as possible, a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission
(Decision WHC-13/37.COM/20, page 141).
The World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS carried out this reactive monitoring mission from 2 to 7
December 2013 with following objectives:
1. The definition of the characteristics of the wider setting for all component parts, in relation to the
Outstanding Universal Value of the property, and put in place appropriate protection, including
the review of the buffer zones and regulatory measures for the protection of the setting of the
Churches of Chiloe,
2. The review of the current protection and management arrangements for the property and the
required measures to improve the legal framework and permit granting processes between types
of preservation and institutional competences,
3. The update and enforcement of legislative and regulatory measures to ensure that the defined
characteristics of the wider setting are adequately protected and that new development takes into
account the visual relations between the inscribed property and its setting,
4. The measures to mitigate the visual impact of the Castro shopping mall on the component part
as well as other measures to better integrate it with the existing setting;
2. NATIONAL POLICY FOR THE PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE
WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY
2.1. Heritage national legislation
Chile adopted the 1972 Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in
1980 and the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed
Conflict (1954) and the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003) in
Law 17.288 (1970) is the main piece of legislation for National Heritage in Chile. The Government of
Chile, through the National Monuments Council (CMN–Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales)
composed of 21 members that represent several institutions, carries out the supervision and
protection of heritage assets. The Council has a secretary who is responsible for the executive work.
CMN is part of the Ministry for Education, but it has no its own staff and no regional structures.
Chile’s National Heritage Law creates several categories of monuments: historical monuments,
natural sanctuaries, and “typical zones”, archaeological and public monuments, which are declared
through decrees1. The so-called “typical zones”, are groups of properties that form a unit and are
located near archaeological or historic ruins and buildings, which are declared historical
Having into account the fragilities in the conservation and management of the World Heritage
Properties in Chile, a Commission on World Heritage (Comisión de Patrimonio Mundial – CPM) has
been recently created in October 2013. This Commission has the purpose of reinforcing CMN work
through a technical approach. It has an intersectional character, with representatives of several
Ministries and Institutions. The objective is to achieve an integral strategy of conservation,
management and sustainable reinforcement and the development of a Public Policy of World
Heritage (Digital Annex A Presentation for the Mission by CMN, p. 69-76).
2.2. Complementary legislation
The “National Policy for Urban Development: Sustainable Cities and Quality of Life”, was approved
in June 2013. In its diagnosis, the document states that, although there are a great number of
protected properties, this legal instrument does not contemplate possibilities of its management or
financing. The existing regulations do not observe aspects related to natural heritage, identity,
geographical diversity or the cultural richness.
The new policy added the notion of “territory” to the existing “urban” concept. It includes, among the
goals to be achieved, the institutional decentralization and the reinforcement of the identity and
heritage. The document addresses specifically the following objectives: the heritages’ surrounding
and the natural and cultural landscape; design of the public space; quality of architecture; adequate
urban planning and questions related to heritage itself. Objective 4.3.15 states to “establish in the
instruments of territorial planning, corresponding rules to ensure that new insertions in sectors of
urban or rural heritage do not affect them negatively and be coherent with the natural surroundings,
The Minister of Education has authority to subscribe the declaration of National Monuments
The article in the spanish original states «para efecto de mantener el carácter ambiental y proprio de ciertas poblaciones
o lugares donde existieren ruinas arqueológicas, o ruinas y edificios declarados Monumentos Históricos, el Consejo de
Monumentos Nacionales podrá solicitar se declare de interés público la protección y conservación del aspecto típico y
pintoresco de dichas poblaciones o lugar o de determinadas zonas de ella. » (Article 29, Law 17.288/70 )
the culture and form of life of the community.” It also states in numeral 4.3.16 the possibility of
taking expeditious actions in case of natural disasters.
The existing General Law for Urbanism and Construction (D.F.L.no458/1975) and its Ordinance (D.S.
no47/92) has territorial planning instruments and regulations for the urban areas. This law previews
plans in several levels: Plan for Urban Development; Plan for Inter-communal Areas of communities
that are integrated through an urban unit; Urban Master Plans and the Laws for definition of Urban
Perimeters. The Municipality is responsible for its Master Plans. (Details can be seen in Digital
Annex B Presentation made for the Mission by Ministry of Housing and Urbanism).
2.3. Churches of Chiloe: Protection and definition of “Typical Zones”
All the 16 churches were declared as National Monument of Chile by means of various Decrees
according Law No. 17.288. (Figure 1 – Map of the Archipelago of Chiloé)
CMN is implementing a Plan for the Integral Protection of the 16 Churches. The protection of the
wider setting is being made by declarations of “typical zones”. Before the process of the declaration
of a “typical zone” is forwarded for evaluation and approval by CMN, the Mission was told that
meetings with the communities and interested institutions, with the presence of the municipalities,
FUNDAICH, the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism, CMN and consultants, precede it. Only the
churches of Chonchi (2000), Tenaún (2004), Quinchao, and Nercón (2013) have specific decrees.
Colo and San Juan have studies. It is foreseen to finish the declarations for the remaining twelve
churches by the end of 2014. These zones will be addressed also in item 3. (Figure 2 – Program for
the integral protection of the “typical Zones” of the Churches of Chiloé).
In order to avoid other problems in the wider setting of the properties, Preliminary Protection Zones
(Áreas Preliminares de Protección – APP) are being proposed. These proposals, which were
previously discussed with the communities, will be sent to the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism,
who will send them to the Municipalities. The goal is to guarantee the protection of the area in
accordance with the Municipality, while the process of declaration of ‘typical zones’ is concluded.
(For details see Digital Annex A Presentation for the Mission by CMN, p. 43-51).
2.4. Municipal Regulations
By law, the municipal regulations have to observe heritage questions and create zones for the
Historical Centres. That is reaffirmed in the already mentioned “National Policy for Urban
The churches are located in urban and rural areas. Only five of the sixteen churches are in urban
areas (Achao, Chonchi, Castro, Nercón and Dalcahue), and the Mission was told that it is not
possible to have planning in rural areas.
The mayor of Castro brought an important concern regarding the high costs of Master Plans, in a
context of small municipalities with reduced technical staff. CMN remarked that the possibility of
financing the necessary studies and the adaptation of the Master Plans and Sectorial Plans to the
heritage aspects, through the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism, could be considered.
In the case of Castro, the Urban Master Plan does not protect the heritage and neither does it
enhance the peculiar identity of the place. It only restricts construction heights to 16 meters in the
immediate area around the Plaza. The Mission was also told that, in 2008, there were changes that
did not take into consideration the recommendations from CMN.
2.5. Institutional framework and management structure
The churches are part of the Catholic Church’s Diocese of Ancud and are administered by the
Bishop of Ancud and parish priests. FUNDAICH is a private entity, created by the Diocese and
presided over by the Bishop, for conservation and enhancement matters of the churches. The
Foundation has the objective to address the communities’ needs related to the conservation of the
churches, to bring professionals into the conservation process and secures State contributions for
their protection and restoration.
The main characteristic and support of the religious and social life of Chiloé are the important
figures of the patron and the fiscales, who assume specific functions in the hierarchy of the chapel
or church and the community. These are responsibilities that passed from generation to generation.
Traditionally there was a local “culture of maintenance” for the conservation of the churches that
was guaranteed by their religious and communal use. There was an active, unified and selfless
participation of the community that matched together with the wisdom, expertise and ancestral
knowledge of the Carpenters’ School of Chiloé.
2.6. Findings of the mission
Chiles’ heritage legislation is generic and focuses on the protection of the properties. It needs to be
complemented in order to allow for the adequate management of the protected heritage. For the
moment the following questions are emerging: the lack of instruments to regulate the heritages’
environment and the lack of vertical and horizontal transversality and joint work regarding the
management of these questions at the administrative levels (State, Province and Municipality) and
sectors (such as Urbanism, Transport, Tourism, Education, Finances...). Clear competencies and
responsibilities of each organism involved in the management of the site (approvals,
infrastructures...) have to be defined. And there is no legal mechanism such as Public Legal Actions
(class actions) to reinforce its protection at administrative or judicial level, enabling that problems or
risks can be denounced and concrete measures can be required through initiatives of a General
(State/Federal) Attorneys’ Office3.
CMN must be able to evaluate questions that affect the buffer zones and the wider setting of the
protected heritage. The National Policy for Urban Development is a first step, but must be
complemented through strategies and specific legislation and regulations. Not only urban questions
have to be addressed, but also instruments that regard planning of rural areas of the Archipelago
have to be created. Another topic is guaranteeing the quality of new insertions in the Buffer Zones of
the properties. In particular, there must be the possibility to require Heritage Impact Studies and
Control Measures on negative aspects regarding Environmental, Landscape or Vicinity questions.
These studies should contemplate, among others, material, aesthetical, and functional aspects
including density, traffic impact, pollution, historical relevance and identity, social and economic
The “typical zones” can function as buffer zones, but the already declared areas are not large
enough to meet the international and scientific standards and need to be modified and have their
decrees substituted. The specific aspects concerning the “typical zones” of the property will be
detailed in item 3.
The new Commission for World Heritage will reinforce CMN’s limited mandate and the reduced
team of the Executive Secretary, but there need to be more stable arrangements in the different
levels of the administration involved with heritage. Another question that was raised was the
In Brazil these actions are called “Ação Civil Pública” or “Ação Popular” and are initiatives of the “Ministério
centralization of the heritage structure in Santiago, with consequent delays and difficulties on the
3. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES / THREATS
The main threats that were identified are the following:
The State Party has no legal instruments to guarantee the protection of the areas surrounding
the component parts of property, including regulations over impacts on landscape or other
factors that can affect the immediate and wider setting, such as increasing density, traffic or
pollution (details and comments in item 2)
The spiritual and social dimension of the property can be affected by changes of social and
economic values that represent a reduction of participation of the community with consequences
on the conservation and maintenance work (details and comments in item 4).
The fragile material subtract of the churches that easily can be affected by weathering and
termites, need to have secured and constant resources and financing to enforce a maintenance
policy and activities that have to include also the problem of adequate wood replacement
(details and comments in item 4).
The wider setting of the property is at risk because the buffer zones of the component parts of
the property are limited to encompass only the adjacent esplanades or plazas, which does not
constitute appropriate protection.
The transformation of the cities caused by modernization and economic development (in Chiloé
there is the salmon industry) and the increasing touristic interest, reflect on higher commercial
interests. Specifically the setting of the church of Castro, which is the main component of the
whole mission system, is being impacted negatively by the construction of a Mall that affects the
Outstanding Universal Value of the property.
3.1. Wider settings of the property
As said before, the lack of adequate buffer zones and of no standards of control within these zones
was an issue raised to the attention of the State Party in 2000.
The State Party has advanced in studies for a “General Protection Plan” (Plan de Protección
Integral) to protect the environmental and landscape surrounding Chiles’ cultural heritage. Within
this framework and focusing the problem of the property “Churches of Chiloé”, an agreement
between CMN, SEREMI MINVU Región de Los Lagos (Secretaría Regional de Ministerio de la
Vivienda y Urbanismo – Los Lagos) was made in order to define Preliminary Protection Zones
(Áreas Preliminares de Protección – APP). This work resulted in a preliminary proposal that was
presented to the Mission. (Digital Annex A Presentation for the Mission by CMN, p. 22-68).
The study consists of the delimitation of boundaries for the buffer zones of the churches, designed
on a base-map (Google maps). The concept is represented in a scheme of the proto-type setting, as
in Figure 3, and is complemented by following criteria:
a) Environmental and cultural landscape unit (summits / sea edge, including 80m of the sea
b) Integration in the village (houses related to the church. meeting and parish houses);
c) Distance (relation of the distance and proportion tower / nave);
d) Design of the street;
e) Definition of a cultural or natural element (cemetery / archaeological plaza / belvedere);
Churches located on islands (because of the sense of territorial belonging);
g) Aspects related to the intangible or use (popular festival, circuits, celebrations, minga).
The maps with the definition of the Preliminary Protection Zones were shown on the presentation,
and the mission had the possibility to overfly all the 16 properties, to have an overview of each area.
The Mission was also in Colo, Tenaún, San Juan, Castro, and Rillan and saw Aldachildo and Chelin
from the water. (Maps in Annex 5 and in Digital Annex A Presentation for the Mission by CMN, p.52-
68). Cristian Larrére Wörner, Executive Director from FUNDAICH took the aerial photos from the
3.1.1. Complementary technical suggestions
The Mission received technical suggestions from the College of Architects of Chile (Colegio de
Arquitectos), from groups of citizens of Chiloé and from ICOMOS Chile.
The College of Architects considered that, taking into account the recent situation in relation to
cultural heritage, the Archipelago of Chiloé should be inscribed as a World Heritage property in the
category of Cultural Landscape. The presented justification mentioned that there are more than
other 130 also authentic churches that merge into the landscape; that the rich customs and
traditions need effectively be protected so as the crafts and culinary, results of an important rural
and fish production; that the area is marked by an rural urbanism, where the landscape is structured
upon small scale occupational units – villages, houses and paths. (Digital Annex C)
A group of citizens, concerned with the recent impacts to the property and the conceptual advances
in regard to preservation, proposed that the property “Churches of Chiloé” should have its
nomination enlarged to be considered as a Cultural Landscape.
ICOMOS Chile gave a good definition of the essence of the traditional Chilota architecture and
mentions that it requires a precise urban regulation and the adoption of regulations for the
immediate surroundings and the buffer zones addressing cultural landscape, architecture and
setting, of urban and rural nature, and the concordant functions. Specifically for the definition of
boundaries, it was addressed that the cultural landscape, with its views, the protection of the system
church-esplanade or plaza-street structure and the geographical system (such as beaches, rivers,
plateaus, woods...) should be protected (Digital Annex D).
Different contexts in regard of the dynamic of the place were identified concerning exposure to
changes that need different approaches, these include:
Context of high transformation need very short-term measures (1 year) - principally Castro,
Nercón y Dalcahue.
In the case of Castro, it is mentioned that at the time of nomination the Regulation Plan had its
height limited to the body of the facade of the church. Afterwards this was changed, and this is
considered one of the great mistakes done by the Municipality.
Context of average transformation need measures in a short time (3 years) - principally Achao,
Context of low transformation, need medium term measures - Quinchao and Caguach
(ceremonial centres) and Rilán, Aldachildo, Ichuac, Vilupulli, Detif, Tenaun, Colo, San Juan,
3.1.2. Mission findings
The nomination dossier considered the churches and the esplanades related to outdoor religious
activities. Complementary values, represented by the surrounding urban tissue of the small towns
and villages and their settings in the magnificent cultural landscape of the Archipelago of Chiloé,
were not considered as part of the criteria. Recent changes due to the transformation in the social,
cultural and economic context impose a new approach for the protected area. The protection of the
property has to be strengthened through wider boundaries, clear definition of the use and
regulations for new construction and development, and of the responsibilities of each of the involved
As informed above (item 2), the State Party has not finalized the protection of the buffer zones for
each church of the serial property. The Preliminary Protection Zones (APP) that are being proposed
by CMN are larger than the existing “Typical Zones”. Both zones are represented in the maps.
In the opinion of the Mission, these larger boundaries – APP, proposed by CMN are a first approach
for a wider setting of the property. It is a proposal for preliminary boundaries for each serial
component of the property, without regulatory measures. This proposal can be considered as a first
step for a more adequate protection of the property and it is fundamental to ensure that these
protection zones for each component part of the property are legally adopted. However, the mission
notes that these preliminary boundaries need to be reviewed, based on more profound studies of
the characteristics of each setting, before they are adopted as final boundary for the component
parts of the property.
In addition, the existing Master Plans do not value the inscribed churches, and these deficiencies
have to be reviewed. In general the construction height is free, only ruled by oblique levelling lines
such as the case of Dalcahue and Nercon. In Castro only the area around the plaza has its
maximum height regulated to 16 meters. In Chonchi and Quinchao the areas around the plazas are
regulated so that construction does not exceed 12 meters although higher construction is allowed in
The final proposal for the wider setting should consider the following elements:
Precise boundaries delimited in maps;
Characteristics of each zone regarding the enhancement of the attributes that convey the
Outstanding Universal Value of the property;
Regulations with clear restrictions in order to effectively control new development and minimize
possible threats. The regulations should address the areas under private ownership and the
3.1.3. Brief characteristics of the property
The property “Churches of Chiloe” has a characteristic unified typology of architecture, composed of
different elements and functions, as can be seen in the scheme bellow. The chapel or church
congregates the community. Together with the frontal esplanade, the small pier and the cemetery,
they are the centres of the village. The towers of the churches are the guides for the insular
navigation of the archipelago.
Organization-Scheme of the Missions: Composing elements: the church (iglesia) is linked to the water (mar)
with a pier (embarcadero), generally through an esplanade, with the presence of a cemetery (Scheme
designed by BERG, 2005, pg.14).
The 16 churches represent an interesting synthesis of different solutions to the diverse geographical
environments that strongly mark the landscape of Chiloe. There are only few urban structures (such
as Castro, Dalcahue, Chonchi, Achao), the other are rural villages. The cultural landscape of the
archipelago is outstanding and gives setting and substance to the serial property. Therefore the
definitions of adequate boundaries are fundamental. There are settlements situated on a plateau,
with the outstanding towers of the church (Castro); beside the sea (Tenaún, Caguach, Aldachildo
and Quinchao); on an outstanding punta (Chelin); near an isthmus (Detif); inserted near the water
with an elevation as background (such as San Juan and Tenaún); on the hillside (such as Nercón
and Vilupulli); in a valley (Rillan); on a peninsula (Colo); in bays (such as Ichuac, San Juan, Colo).
3.2. Definition of Boundaries of the buffer zones (Figures 4 and 5)
For each of the component parts, it is essential to make detailed technical studies that should
consider territory values (such as landscape, geography, setting, water edge and its large tides);
remaining constructed values located in the vicinity (architecture and urban nature); aesthetical
questions (such as views and construction mass, panoramas and belvederes), functional values,
including valuation of possible uses, infrastructure, intangible values and practices that
guarantee the continuity of the integration of the property in the communal life.
For the definition of boundaries for each of the component parts, it is essential to make an
inventory of the remaining vernacular architecture, a study of the characteristics of each setting
and an analysis of the visibility and views of each church. The visibility should take in account
different points of view of the property and in particular the perspective from the water, in order
to enhance its important former function for navigation.
This will identify the context of the setting of each church, and together with the resulting criteria
will be the basis for the definitive proposal for the delimitation of the wider setting and its
regulations. It is recommended that the State Party protect as soon as possible the valuable
elements that were identified in the inventory to guarantee that the surrounding context of the
properties’ value is recognized at international level.
Until the studies mentioned above are not concluded, it is recommended that the delimitation
proposed by CMN as preliminary boundaries, to be revised by 2015, be adopted. For this
preliminary proposal, the Mission recommends:
To take into account the quality of the landscape that surrounds the properties and suggests
enlarging some sites as they are directly linked to the inscribed component parts. The idea is
to use more clearly the criteria of geographical setting, as a part of the cultural landscape
and its outstanding scenery. The following considerations were made for the enlargement of
Vilipulli – enlarge the area to encompass its rural landscape;
Detif – include the whole area of the isthmus and enlarge the area behind the cemetery;
Aldachildo – in direction to the South, include the road, trees, wet area and slope;
Chelin – although there are trees that enclose the inscribed component, perhaps it
should be enlarged because of the geographical characteristics of the Punta;
Colo – include the edge of the opposite fjord;
Tenaún – include the panoramic views of the approach to the village.
o CNM proposed, and the Mission agreed, to include also the criteria of areas covered by the
tides, due to its large variation in the archipelago. This is a strong mark on the cultural
landscape and the riverside populations use the area to collect shellfish.
o As noted above, a fundamental criterion to be observed is the visibility of the property.
Studies should be carried out regarding not only the visibility of the towers of the churches,
but also the visibility of the setting of the property itself (such as it was identified in Tenaún).
Another criterion to be observed is to guarantee the panoramic views over the settings (such
as was identified in Colo) and the roads with panoramic views.
3.2.1. Preliminary approach of a concept for the protection of the wider setting
Chiloe’s distance from the economical centres and its isolation favoured that important aspects of
the material heritage were preserved and till now are visible in their original context. In order to
enhance the importance of the group of churches in Chiloé, the studies regarding a wider setting
should evaluate to what degree remnant urban structures in the vicinity of the property and its
relation with the natural landscape could be integrated harmoniously in the contemporary
In regard to the wider setting of the Churches of Chiloé, at least two different zones could be
considered: the immediate vicinity of the church and the surrounding natural and cultural landscape.
There are also intermediate urbanized areas that affect the property in a different level.
The foundational core and the remaining historical structures would compose the immediate vicinity,
which would need to be protected at the national level. The core consists of the church with its
structure, including the cemetery, together with the public places composed of the esplanadas or
plazas and the way to the pier (water). The remaining buildings and the urban structures, identified
in the inventory are also part of this core. This urban structure has to be maintained clearly visible.
The public space and urban tissue need to have their protection reinforced through legal protection.
Regulations have to provide clear rules for how to use these spaces. For instance, the esplanades
that until now have maintained their natural character, without urbanization, should continue this
way (such as Aldachildo, Caguach, Colo, Quinchao, Detif, Ichuac and Vilupulli). In the case of
Castro, the Mall did not only affect the setting on the plateau, but also damaged the view from the
sea, as the pier is located on the same slope.
Besides the analysis of typologies and the urban fabric, important views regarding the properties
need to be identified. The water edge is an important element to be considered. Scale has to be
assured, together with a controlled occupation with a balance between density and green mass.
Clear rules in regard of limits of height, volume and use need to be established. In the case of
certain interventions that could impact the site, the regulations have to foresee instruments such as
studies for their impact on landscape and on the vicinity of the property.
The Archipelago of Chiloé has a remarkable cultural landscape that has a harmonious dialogue with
the settlements on the different islands. The surrounding landscape of the properties has to be
included, in order to give the geographical context to the setting. It is a fundamental scenario of the
property. The studies should include the comprehension of the setting of the village or town where
the properties are inserted, with special attention to the visibility of the towers of the churches and
the relation to the sea. In this area there should be a great control on density, and constructions or
installations of great dimensions should be restricted.
The Mission suggests that CMN takes into account the objective proposal of ICOMOS Chile as a
contribution for further studies on the subject of the wider setting.
The proposal of College of Architects is important, because it endorses and reinforces the
importance of the property Churches of Chiloe. There are fundamental aspects that give
sustainability and context to the property and have to be considered and included in the proposal for
the management of the site in its wider setting.
In regard to the proposal to reconsider the category of the property as a Cultural Landscape rather
than a group of monuments, this will confer a value that the property already had at the time of the
nomination. Nevertheless, the proposal to include the whole Archipelago of Chiloé in a potential re-
nomination should be considered more carefully, although it certainly has characteristics that could
be considered as Outstanding Universal Value, initially the Mission recommends to protect the site
at the level of the country before a potential re-nomination is considered.
The final proposal has to be included in the Master Plan for the property, in which a territorial and
landscape management approach would be important notwithstanding the inscription category.
This is particularly relevant if the aesthetic qualities the Archipelago of Chiloé are considered. These
qualities and the current integrity it maintains are under threat from uncontrolled investments and
developments if clear regulations are not developed. Additionally, given the extension of the area to
be managed, a consistent urban and landscape planning is critically required.
3.3. Shopping mall in construction and administrative procedures
San Francisco de Castro Church, besides being part of the World Heritage property, is protected as
Historic Monument at national level (Decreto Supremo no 1875, 19/07/1976) and has its limits fixed
by Law (Decreto no 260, 08/09/1999).
In February 2012, the World Heritage Centre received information on the construction of a Shopping
Mall in the vicinity of Castro’s’ Church that was affecting the property because of its size, scale and
location. Particularly from the sea view, the new mall is a prevailing element of the Castro skyline,
competing with the dominant silhouettes of the towers of the Church of Castro and with the
traditional setting. The mall is located outside the existing buffer zone.
In March 2012, technical information was requested from the State Party. The State Party submitted
the requested information in February 2013 although the mall had been built in the meantime.
3.3.1. Local regulatory matters (approval / permits / suspension of works /
irregularities / fines)
The town of Castro has a Communal Regulatory Plan that includes a Zoning Plan. The site where
the church is located is classified as Zone of National Monuments. There is a Zone of Plaza de
Armas, which includes the building lots that are in front of the Plaza, and is the only area that has its
height limited to 16 meters. The area where the Mall is located corresponds to the Central Zone of
Castro. The Communal Plan does not include provisions for protecting the character of the city, its
urban heritage and setting.
In April 2008, the Municipality of Castro granted the permit for the construction of a shopping mall.
At that time, the project involved the construction of a five-story building, with another three
underground stories, an area of 24,137 square meters and 149 parking spaces. At the front of the
street, there is a continuous bloc, ten meters high. The principal bloc appears behind as a
significantly massive volume, out of scale with the surrounding buildings. The location of the Mall is
on the border of the plateau, which gives the building an increasing visibility.
In November 2011, the construction company was fined by the Municipality for constructing in the
adjacent lots without a permit. In December 2011, the Municipality granted permits for the adjacent
lot for the construction of a commercial building of 1.464,8 square meters, 5 stores, with 3
underground stores, cellars and six leased parking lots.
In February 2012, the Municipality requested the suspension of works because construction
exceeded the authorized surface and modifications had been made without respect to the limitations
of the permit initially granted. In spite of this request, works continued and further fines were
imposed for not suspending works.
As noted before, the Chilean legislation does not require a Heritage Impact assessment that would
address Environmental, Landscape or Vicinity questions in regard to new construction that could
cause great transformations in their setting.
In April 2012, the Municipality of Castro and the owner of the shopping mall signed a Transaction
Contract to end illegal processes and to regularize the construction permits. In June 2012, the
Regional Secretary of the Ministry of Transports approved the Impact Study for Urban Transport
regarding the first lot.
In October 2012, the construction process was evaluated by the General Comptroller of the
Republic, at its Ruling No. 61211, which ascertained the legal flaws and irregularities, particularly in
the Transaction Contract. The process was judged by the local Police Court that decided that the
Mall had to pay a fine and regularize the situation of the permits. The Mission was told that in spite
of the legal processes, in practical terms, the constructions went on faster than the court decisions.
The Mission was informed that in April 2012 a public survey, supervised by the local authorities in
charge of the elections was carried out. The following results to the question “do you agree with the
construction of the Mall in Castro in the conditions being conducted (location, architecture, size)"
were obtained: 94% of the 5.069 voters responded “Yes” 4
3.3.2. Current Situation
The Municipality is regularizing the project in accordance to the provisions of its Master Plan. The
works are going on although there is no official permit.
The groups against the construction of the Mall began another process to submit an appeal before
the Castro tribunal for nullity of the permits given to PASMAR, the owner of the mall, and requested
that it was declared as an illegal construction.
3.3.3. Responsibility of the State Party
As said before, the State Party did not address the request made at the time of the nomination in
2000, for the definition of adequate buffer zones around each of the churches with the
correspondent standards of control. CMN has limited mandates in regard to development and new
In 2012 Castro had 54.323 people (approximately 39.000 over 18 years) (Data of National Institute for
construction outside the areas legally recognized as heritage and its buffer zones, consequently the
preservation of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property cannot be ensured when threats
arise in areas beyond their legal mandate.
The Master Plan of Castro was changed in 2008 and did not observe the recommendations made
by CMN. In addition, no mobility studies were carried out. The Mission was also informed that
Chilean law does not require that the people responsible for the urbanism sector at the Municipality
level have to be architects or have a background on urban studies.
Although the entrepreneur did not observe the legal requests to stop the construction, neither the
Municipality nor the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism took legal measures to enforce the judicial
3.4. Municipal and Civil society initiatives and reactions regarding the Mall
In March 2012, citizens and civil organizations, including the College of Architects, made warnings
to the Regional Secretary of the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism that modifications in the Master
Plan were being made without previous mobility studies.
Afterwards the College of Architects, citizens for Castro and the NGO “Defend the City” initiated an
action before the General Comptroller of the Republic. A lawsuit against PASMAR was presented
and was lost in the Supreme Court.
In the meeting the mission had with the Mayor, he emphasized how the situation has harmed the
public image of the Municipality of Castro at the national level. He explained that it was the Director
for Construction of Castro who gave the permit, observing the legal precepts and that he does not
accept the new boundaries that are being proposed by CMN. Otherwise he considers that Castro is
a small county and the elaboration of a Plan has high costs. He considered that there is no need to
change the Master Plan.
Several voices have risen against the construction of the mall: the Junta de Vecinos no 1 and 35;
Ciudadanos por Castro; Corporación de Desarrollo de Chiloé; Consejeros Comunales de las
Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil, among others (See annex C for detailed information on the
The College of Architects also brought an analysis of the main irregularities that occurred during the
process of the construction of the Mall. They also presented the proposal to consider not only the
site of the churches, but the whole Archipelago as a Cultural Landscape as presented in Digital
Annex C (already discussed in item 3).
On the other hand, the presidents of Unión Comunal J.V. Urban and Rurales and the representative
of the Consumers Association of Castro have both stated that as the Mall is located outside the
boundaries of the protected zone and that the project does not affect the OUV of the World Heritage
A meeting with three representatives of the enterprise PASMAR (the owner of the Mall), including
the architect of the project, was scheduled (the latter did not attend) to deal over the legal situation
and the status of construction of the Mall. Among others, the mission team requested the
presentation of the final plans for the project as soon as possible in order to evaluate its impact on
the OUV of the property. Up to the time of drafting of the report, the Mission team had not received
any document from the owner company of the mall.
3.5. Findings of the mission
The construction of the new mall in Castro is representative of challenges in reconciling
conservation and development. A group sees it as a symbol of progress and modernity. The
municipality sees it as an income opportunity because the generation of taxes, without realizing the
aesthetic, cultural and social impacts. The Archipelago of Chiloé presents a remarkable landscape
with great environmental qualities that, together with the peculiar conditions of its settlement,
created unique cultural characteristics that are outstanding and are essential for the identity of the
population. These qualities are important also for its attractiveness, including tourism and leisure
activities that are an important contribution for the economic support of the area. Castro is the
foundational core of Chiloe’s’ mission system and till now has maintained the scale, coherent
volumetric dimension and ambience that were compatible with the Outstanding Universal Value of
the property. In addition, the social aspect needs to be considered, particularly given that the
debate and divergent opinions regarding the mall created a serious division among the population.
Finally, it should be noted that the dimension of this construction affects and unbalances the cultural,
communal and economic life of the Castro’s population.
The case of the mall also reflects the lack of an integrated work between preservation and urban
planning. In Chiloé, there is a very visible process that provoked a national debate regarding
heritage and development with cultural and social repercussions. It was highlighted because similar
situations were happening in other places of the country.
The new mall that is being constructed by PASMAR impacts this highly significant component part
of the property and one of the most relevant attributes that convey its Outstanding Universal Value
as well as the surrounding landscape of Castro. The importance of the churches for their scale and
as references for the navigation in the framework of the Archipelago, a fundamental characteristic,
has been compromised. This aspect was present in 2000 Nomination file, and was reinforced in the
Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value adopted by the World Heritage Committee
in 2013. The administrative process that led to the current situation, shows a fragile Municipal
structure, presents failures on legal and administrative level and is being judged in court.
The importance of Castro extrapolates the regional dimension of its strategic importance in the
colonization of the south of Latin America during the 16 and 17th century. Castro, together with
Santiago and La Serena, was one of the first cities founded in Chile. The first church in Castro was
constructed in 1567. It was where the missionaries installed the headquarters of their organization
and was the head of the Circular Peripatetic Mission, this peculiar evangelization system that
spread over the archipelago.
The location of Castro is outstanding on the top of a natural plateau of a peninsula. Its location
clearly emphasizes its functional predominance, in regard to the other churches of this religious
system. The towers of the church highlighted the landscape and were a testimony to its historical
The size, scale and location of the Mall make it a dominant element of the landscape of Castro,
particularly in light of the characteristics of its traditional constructions and the scale of the setting.
From the sea, the new Mall is a prevailing element of the Castro skyline, competing with the
inscribed component part, with its dominant silhouette of the towers of the Church of Castro
surrounded by the traditional setting.
Another aspect impacted by the construction is the importance of the slope where the mall is
inserted. Traditionally the churches had an important relation with the sea therefore the access from
the water needs to be maintained. This slope is located on the portside has traditionally served as
the approach from the sea to the city. The new building dominates this view and has no relation to
the vernacular architecture that is inserted along the slope and the sea edge. The illustrations of the
situation can be seen on Figure 6, (impact over the landscape of Castro); Figure 7 (impact on size
and scale of the setting); Figure 8 (impact on size and scale of the immediate location); Figure 9
(lack of study on the traffic impact that the mall will produce on the city’s’ structure).
In order to evaluate what has finally been approved, the Mission needs to receive the corresponding
plans. At the meeting in Castro, the representative of PASMAR informed about the court decision
given at the end of November 2013 that authorized the legal continuity of the works, but that
PASMAR had not received the legal permit from the Municipality. But, as we visited the exterior of
the building, the Mission saw workers going out of the building, which gave the impression that the
works continue going on without permits. (See figure 9)
As said before, unfortunately till now the Mission has not received the plans, but it seems that the
building has reached its final height. The aspect of the building as it is now needs adjustments on
size, mass, design and materials in order to minimize its impact on the landscape.
In addition, the street network of the small town certainly will suffer of great impact, without
mentioning the impact over the church structure that already is present with the existing conditions
of the traffic flow.
The consequences of the situation are lasting. There was a severe impact to the visual qualities of
the component part of the World Heritage that are clearly visible in its surrounding landscape. The
problem caused a great repercussion and led to citizens’ initiatives that included legal actions that
went to court against the construction company.
This situation shows how important it is to achieve general proceedings to address questions
involving severe negative impact on the OUV of the World Heritage properties. The question is that
it is not possible to preview all the future damages that could affect the protected properties. It is
important to establish an official proceeding to protect the property in special cases where the origin
of the problem is located outside the boundaries of the inscribed buffer zones, in order to protect the
properties from external impacts. In this respect, carrying out Heritage Impact Assessments, during
the project design phases, is crucial to ensure that no negative impacts to OUV occur.
4. ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF CONSERVATION OF THE PROPERTY
4.1 The conservation of the Churches
Because of their construction material and the environmental characteristics, the churches are
significantly vulnerable in terms of conservation and there is a need for a continuous work of
maintenance. Unfortunately, the traditional means of conservation, formerly assured by the
communities, through “minga” (unpaid community work) has changed. Nowadays the communities
are not able to keep up with the maintenance work by themselves. It is important that the necessary
requirements to maintain de OUV of the property, especially after the restoration works, do not
affect the “spirit of belonging” of the community.
In the meeting with the Governor of the Province, he mentioned that the social question should be
addressed in a stronger way, because of the fragility of the property. As an alternative for the lack of
heritage infrastructure at regional level, a provincial commission could be created. He mentioned
that a copy of the nomination was given to each community. There are efforts made to preserve the
intangible cultural values, such as the recovery of the songs sung by the Jesuits that were recorded
in the voices of children.
In general there are great difficulties in obtaining funding for conservation works. In the case of the
property “Churches of Chiloé”, the State Party is making considerable efforts and spending financial
resources in the restoration works of the churches. When needed, the National Centre for
Conservation and Restoration - CNCR, dependent on the Direction of Libraries Archives and
Museums, DIBAM, gives the technical support for questions regarding criteria and methodology of
restoration. In October 2005, a document was made regarding the standardization of criteria and
procedures of the interventions for this property (Digital Annex F Criteria and proceedings of
interventions for the Churches of Chiloé that were declared World Heritage).
In regard of funding, the Government of Chile, initially with the support of Inter-American
Development Bank – BID, and afterwards with public funding, is implementing a large-scale
restoration program – “Heritage Enhancement Program” (Programa Puesta en Valor del Patrimonio
- PVP), led by the Secretariat for Regional and Administrative Development / Ministry of the Interior
and Public Security (Subsecretaría de Desarrollo Regional y Administrativo / Ministerio del Interior
y Seguridad Pública), that is technically executed by the Department of Architecture of the Ministry
of Public Works (Dirección de Arquitectura del MOP) and implemented by the Regional
Governments. This program includes not only the restoration of the properties, but also
environmental aspects, intangible heritage, administrative and management mechanisms, in order
to strengthen initiatives of the involved actors including training and education.
After the inscription of the property, an investment program was initiated to support the restoration
process, led by the Bishop of Ancud, through its Foundation Friends of the Churches of Chiloé -
FUNDAICH. This commitment is being made through a state program called “Sustainable Tourism
Development Program in the Communities of Chiloé and Palena”, financed by the mentioned loan of
BID. From the total cost of 15 million dollars, 2.8 were intended for the restoration of the churches
and are being developed since 2003. (See Digital Annex H, presentation for the Mission,
SUBDERE). In regard to the conservation process that is implemented for all components of the
Property, the report of SUBDERE (Digital Annex H) summarised the work carried out and its costs:
Period 2003-2008: Besides the basic studies for the Projects State of Conservation of all 16
churches with their architectural drawing, there were restoration works in the facades and towers
of 8 churches (Chonchi, San Juan, Colo, Tenaún, Vilupulli, Ichuac, Aldachildo y Quinchao),
smaller interventions in 5 churches and the development of crosscutting projects (Proyectos
transversales) related to intangible heritage (resources from a loan from BID).
Period 2008-2011: restoration works in the naves (Tenaún and Quinchao); structural
consolidation (towers of Castro and naves of Aldachildo and Chonchi) and continuity of the
crosscutting projects (resources coming from the Government).
Period 2011-2015: Implementation of the “Heritage Enhancement Program”, mentioned above.
The complete restoration of Nercón, Rilán, Dalcahue and Chelin was accomplished but partial
restoration interventions in 5 churches (Ichuac, Colo, Detif, Caguach and Achao) are needed.
The report concludes that in synthesis:
The State can count with FUNDAICH, specialized in restoration with equipment and facilities for
that purpose and for the development of tourism activities regarding the Property.
Restoration Projects for each church, allowing obtaining resources for the interventions.
4 restored churches: Quinchao, Tenaún, Nercón and Rilán
3 churches in process of restoration intervention in 2014: Dalcahue, Chelín and Ichuac.
6 churches had their facade and tower restored, what diminished the potential risk conditions.
Another issue to be noted is the restriction due the protection of species of fine hardwoods that are
being replaced by larch and cypress. Additionally, there is the need to guarantee the transmission of
the traditional building techniques and to carry out further research on alternatives to mitigate the
effects of weathering and attacks of xylophages. There is also is need to make progress in risk
preparedness and environmental protection for the churches. These issues could be addressed on
an overarching policy for all component parts of the World Heritage property.
4.2 Findings of the mission (Figures 10 to 13)
FUNDAICH has its headquarters in Ancud, in a former convent, where the carpentry is installed.
There is also a small Visitors’ Centre (Centro de Visitantes), where it is possible to receive
information and by articles related to the Property. It is expected from CMN that FUNDAICH, who is
responsible for the management of the site and coordinates the restoration works, to maintain the
current training programs for architects, conservators, carpenters, artists and craftsmen, which
ensures a more comprehensive future recovery of the Churches of Chiloé. Efforts should be made
by the Bishopric of Ancud, the religious authority of each Church and FUNDAICH, to encourage,
motivate and lead to community involvement, as well as other actors and entities that are relevant,
in the stages of development and implementation of projects.
The Mission visited 6 of the 16 churches: Tenaún, Nercón, Rilán, Colo, San Juan and Castro. The
first three (Tenaún, Nercón and Rilán) were recently completely restored. The beginning and the
end of each of these complete restoration interventions is marked by a ceremony, where
symbolically is made the first withdrawal and the last replacement of a wooden plank. Castro, Colo
and San Juan need conservation interventions. At the sites there were meetings with the community,
who could express their problems to CMN. In general there were aspects concerning basic
resources for maintaining the churches, physical problems due the necessity of conversation issues
and the difficulty to maintain the churches open to visitation and related to facilities, such as the lack
of minimal services (bathroom and eateries) that are supported by the community themselves. The
mission also heard some voices criticizing the restoration and management process recently
completed in Nercón.
For restoration works passages are installed or maintained besides the ceiling vaults that are of
great help for maintenance work. In the sacristies of Tenaún and Rilán, a small museum, with
information about the property and the restoration works that has been carried out was installed. It
was reported to the Mission that because of acts of vandalism it was necessary to put fences in the
church of Dalcahue. There are communities requesting measures to cut wind currents at the
principal door. The Mission was told that it is important that the population does not enter through
the side doors. When the mass is happening it is important to have the front doors open.
After the restoration works are completed, the community receives management orientation, such
as the model made for Nercón, where a Visitor Centre was being installed, similar to that of
FUNDAICHs’ headquarters. The goal is to give conditions for self-sustaining the maintenance of the
chapels. Among the proposals, the installation of other Visitors’ Centres, where members of the
community can work is being discussed. These Centres would have facilities such as bathrooms
and a Coffee Shop, where it would be possible to buy articles related to the Churches. This faces
the problem of maintaining the churches open to the increasing numbers of visitors that till now has
been attended in an improvised, precarious and selfless way by the community. The resulting
economic benefits of the Visitor Centres are to be reverted fort he operation costs of the churches.
The communities of Rillan, Tenaún, Achao, Chonchi and Colo, have organized services and
facilities for the attention of tourists. Rillan and Tenaun will have their Visitor Centres installed soon.
(Digital Annex G – Management Model for the Chapel Nuestra Señora de Gracia of Nercón)
The visit to the church of Quehui, a church that is not part of the inscribed property and was not
scheduled in the agenda, became possible because the tide did not allow the docking at Chelin. It
was an interesting visit because the kind of restoration work that has to be done could be observed,
considering the fragile material that is very susceptible to weathering and other damaging agents.
4.3 Specific recommendations for the conservation of the Churches
The Mission would like to express congratulations to the State Party and to FUNDAICH for the
restoration and management work that are being done. For the on-going works on the churches, it is
recommended to the State Party to take into consideration following recommendations:
It is important to guarantee resources for the continuity of the conservation works of the
churches. Even after the conclusion of the restorations, there is a need for constant and
continuous resources for the conservation issues.
Resources in capacity building programs for restoration need to be identified and FUNDAICH
should be supported in the effort of maintaining these teams of specialized workers with
Regarding restoration criteria there is a good reference-document for the intervention in the
churches and CNCR gives a complementary scientific support for specific questions that are
Substantial works on restoration are being done in a very short space of time. Restoration
works need attention. Hurried interventions can represent greater changes as necessary and
consequent loss of original substance and the marks of the carpenter school that acted in
Chiloe. It is important that the timing of the restoration processes is not be affected by financial
schedules and do not hinder the pace of restoration works.
Concrete progress to guarantee adequate supply of woods is needed in order to maintain this
unique cultural tradition that is present in the whole Archipelago, and that has in the inscribed
churches its outstanding exponents.
5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. General Considerations
The serial property “Churches of Chiloe” consists of a religious system comprised of 16 component
parts, with spiritual, physical, social and historical dimensions related to them. The Outstanding
Universal Value is recognized for the unique form of the wooden architecture of the churches, built
within a framework of “Circular Missions”, which was introduced by the Jesuits in the 17th century. It
expresses a fusion of European and indigenous cultural traditions, which survives till today,
integrating strong intangible values. Their typology includes frontal esplanades for communal
activities, a cemetery and an access to the sea. The location of the churches is strongly related to
the sea. They were intended to be seen by navigators and accessed by sea.
Besides these factors related to the spiritual, social and physical dimension, expressed in the
nomination of the property, there are additional values that should be reinforced: the strong
presence of a “Spirit of Place”5; the exceptional setting of the churches, each in its own specific way;
the magnificent surrounding natural and cultural landscape and its historical importance.
Chiloé is an outstanding example for the maintenance of its spirit of place that aggregates tangible
and intangible values. It is a complex geographic system composed of different islands deeply
attached to the occupation of man, who brings together the sea, the land and the wooden element.
Its isolation, due the distance from the economical centres contributed to this preservation.
The selection of the 16 churches has as characteristic a unified typology of architecture, composing
elements and function, which are located in different settings, both urban and rural, each one with
specific solutions for the location of its elements. The nature element prevails and is a dominant
aspect for the whole property, which justifies the need for large and well-studied boundaries for the
buffer zones of each church.
The Quebec Declaration on the preservation of the Spirit of Place was adopted by ICOMOS at Quebec, Canada October
4 2008. The charter recognizes that the “spirit of place” is made up of tangible as well as intangible elements among
these memories, narratives, written documents, festivals, commemorations, rituals, traditional knowledge, values, etc...
For the historic aspect, Chiloé extrapolates the local dimension. Castro, together with Santiago and
La Serena was one of the first cities founded in Chile that maintain its original localization. It had a
strategic function and for some time was the most southern city of the Americas. At the time of the
foundation, religious structures accompanied the cities’ functions. The first church in Castro was
constructed in 1567 and missionaries settled their headquarters there. Castro was also the
departure point for an evangelization route that covered not only the archipelago of Chiloe but also
other areas. Castro therefore also had an important role in the evangelization of the southern edge
of South America.
a) The State Property needs to submit for consideration by the World Heritage Committee in
2015, the set of regulations required to ensure the protection of the Outstanding Universal
Value of the Property.
b) To ensure the efficacy of the management arrangements for the property, it is essential to
foresee the reinforcement of National Monuments Council (CMN) and its Executive
Secretary and to reinforce its joint work with other administrative levels and sectors (such as
urbanism, tourism, and education).
c) Adopt specific protection and conservation measures with regard to the component parts of
the property in order to avoid impacts due the increasing development of the cities, such as
the impact on its landscape, visibility, and uses in vicinity areas that can be detrimental to
conservation (such as density, traffic, pollution).
d) Halt all on-going or planned large-scale developments, while these measures have not been
effectively adopted and fully in force.
Buffer zones and wider setting
e) In regard to the characteristics of a wider setting, the State Party has made progress in the
studies for the definition of adequate delimitation its Buffer Zones, and there are additional
aspects that need to be observed.
Finalize the appropriate legislative measures to ensure the protection of the property through
the legal regulation of Buffer Zone.
g) Present a final proposal for the wider setting including precise boundaries delimited in maps,
with the characteristics of each zone regarding, to enhance the Outstanding Universal Value
of the property. Boundary delimitation needs to be accompanied with regulations with clear
restrictions in order to avoid, control or minimize possible threats. These proposals need to
be submitted as a Minor Boundary Modification, according to the procedures established by
the Operational Guidelines, to be considered by the World Heritage Committee at its 2015
h) For the definition of these proposals, detailed technical studies considering territory values
(such as landscape, geography, setting, water edge); remaining constructed values located
in the vicinity of the property and identified through an inventory; aesthetical questions (such
as views and construction mass); functional values, including valuation of possible uses,
intangible values and practices that guarantee the continuity of the integration of the property
in the communal life need to be carried out;
i) Protect as soon as possible the valuable elements that were identified through the inventory
in order to guarantee the surrounding context of the properties’ value that is recognized at
the international level;
j) Protect the surrounding areas, including the immediate zones with vernacular architecture,
and the wider setting composed by the natural landscape.
k) Adopt as preliminary boundaries the delimitation proposed by CMN until the studies
mentioned above are concluded. The Mission has made some technical suggestions that
are registered in the report in regard to enlarging some areas in order to consider Chiloe’s’
outstanding cultural landscape; the tides whose large variation, make them part of the
communities’ economic survival and the visibility of the property, in special the dominance of
the towers of the churches.
There is being a huge effort in the restoration of the churches, with the achievement of
specialized restoration teams.
m) The State Party and the Foundation Friends of the Churches for Chiloé are making great
and valuable efforts regarding the restoration of the property and to identifying adequate
management of the sites after the works have been undertaken;
n) Notwithstanding, additional efforts in keeping the trained experts in restoration works are
o) The schedule of financial resources being applied in the restoration works should not hinder
the quality of the work performed. The Mission draws attention to a careful replacement of
the original material in wood.
p) The importance of the churches as dominant presence in the landscape is fundamental. This
aspect, present in the time of the nomination, was reinforced in the retrospective Statements
adopted in 2013. The mall that is being constructed in Castro by PASMAR affects the
Outstanding Universal Value of the property and causes a negative impact over the wider
setting of the church, with great damage to the Castro’s’ setting and the skyline of the
foundational plateau. The construction of the mall most probably will exacerbate existing
conditions at this component part; especially in regard the generation of additional traffic flow.
q) Develop a Study of the Traffic Impact on the urban tissue and on the structural stability of the
Church of Castro, as the shopping mall will generate great traffic flux, considering its local
and regional scope.
r) Develop a Plan that contains measures to mitigate the impact on the property from the
construction of the Mall to be examined by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session
in 2015. The proposal should include architectural proposals to better integrate form and
materials, with reduction of its mass and height and take in account the size of Castro’s’ and
Chiloe’s’ population and looking for a social-economic balance of Castro’s’ urban core.
s) Recommend the establishment of a management plan for all churches inscribed in the serial
heritage property, with emphasis on the mutual cooperation with each community.
The mission concluded that if the State Party does not put these measures in place by 1 February
2015, the World Heritage Committee might consider the inscription of the property on the List of
World Heritage in Danger at its 39th Session in June 2015.
The construction of the mall in Castro, located outside the buffer zones established in the
nomination, brings attention to the difficulties regarding the management of World Heritage
properties, especially in reconciling new development and conservation of heritage attributes and
Christian Matzner Thomsen
Cristian Larrére Wörner (specially for the aerial photographs)
Betina Adams (all the not marked photos)
BERG COSTA, Lorenzo. Restauración Iglesias de Chiloé: conservando lo infinito, Santiago, Chile.
Editorial Universitaria, 2005.
GUARDA, Gabriel; MORENO JERIA, Rodrigo. Monumenta Cartographica Chiloense: Misión,
territorio y defensa. 1596-1826. Santiago, Chile: Pehuen Editores, 2010.
LOBOS, Jorge; BERG, Lorenzo, ROJAS, Edward, ULLOA, Manuel. Guia de la Arquitectura de
Chiloé. Edición Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla España. 2006
National Monuments Council / CMN, Republic of Chile. Nomination of the Churches of Chiloé for
their inclusion on the World Heritage List. 1999.
Digital Annex A - Proyección de los sitios chilenos inscritos en la Lista del Patrimonio
Mundial-Unesco. Caso: 16 Iglesias de Chiloé. Misión Conjunta de Monitoreo Reactivo
ICOMOS/CPM UNESCO 4 Diciembre 2013.CMN.
Digital Annex B Presentation made for the Mission by Ministry of Housing and Urbanism,
Digital Annex C - Archipiélago de Chiloé: paisaje cultural de la Humanidad. Colegio de
Arquitectos de Chiloé and FLACAM/La Plata Argentina.
Digital Annex D - Apuntes conceptuales y metodológicos para una protección del entorno de
las Iglesias de Chiloé declaradas Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Lorenzo Berg,
Digital Annex E - Visión ciudadana sobre impacto del Mall de Castro al Sitio Iglesias de
Chiloé Patrimonio de la Humanidad a Misión conjunta monitoreo reactivo expertos ICOMOS
y Comisión de Patrimonio Mundial.
Digital Annex F - Criterios y procedimientos de intervención para las Iglesias de Chiloé
declaradas patrimonio de la humanidad. CMN, octubre 2005.
Digital Annex G – Modelo de Gestión Capilla Nuestra Señora de Gracia de Nercón.
Programa Puesta en Valor del Patrimonio. Comuna de Castro. Gobierno Regional los
Lagos. (con participación Obispado de Ancud; Fundación de Iglesias Patrimoniales de
Chiloé, Comunidad de Nercón y su Comité de Capilla, Gobierno Regional de Los Lagos).
Digital Annex H – Presentation made for the Mission. “Heritage Enhancement Program”,
SUBDERE - Secretariat for Regional and Administrative Development / Ministry of the
Interior and Public Security, December 2013
Annex 1: Illustrations
Figure 1 – Map of the Archipelago of Chiloé, with the serial components of the property Churches of
Chiloe. (In: Digital Annex A - Presentation for the Mission by CMN, p. 5)
Figure 2 – Program for the integral protection of the “typical Zones” of the Churches of Chiloé. (In:
Digital Annex A - Presentation for the Mission by CMN, p.44)
Figure 3 - Scheme of the proto-type setting in Chiloe made by CMN. It shows the relation of the
church with the sea edge, summits, topography, geographical accidents, cultural landscapes and
visual cones, (In: Digital Annex A - Presentation for the Mission by CMN, p. 23)
Figure 4 - Definition of boundaries regarding the churches and the immediate setting.
(Images of examples of some criteria)
Church with the Esplanade or Plaza, path to the water edge and surroundings
Connection to the water
Figure 5 – Characteristics of the Setting
Esplanades without urban design
Plazas with design of the open spaces
Caguach (up) – Colo (below)
Identification of the characteristics of the immediate surrounding
San Juan (up) – Rillan (below)
Connection to the water
Tenaún Shipyard San Juan
Chelin Collectors in the low tide
Geographical contexts and landscape
Views and panoramic roads
San Juan (above)
Archipélago of Chiloé
Figures 6 - Shopping mall: impact over the landscape of Castro
The church of Castro is outstanding on the foundational plateau of the city. Photo taken before the
construction of the mall
Approaching views, from the seaside of the Church of Castro on the left and the shopping mall.
Approaching views, from the seaside of the Church of Castro on the left and the shopping mall.
Figures 7 - Shopping Mall: Impact on size and scale of the setting
The Mall competes with the towers of the Church in mass and height
Figures 8 - Shopping Mall: impact on size and scale on the immediate location
View of the mall from the street
The mall and the Church on the urban scale
Buildings at front and at the side of the mall. The mall is not integrated with the characteristic of the city.
Figures 9 - Shopping mall: lack of study on the traffic impact that the mall will produce on the city’s’
The street in front of the Shopping is too small to receive the traffic flow produced by the mall.
This was the solution given for constructing in a too
narrow street. This building lot is being considered
the principal façade of the mall and apparently will
be used for pedestrians
This small street on the slope was mentioned as an
alternative of the outflow of the traffic
Apparently there are works going on, although the
Mission was told by the owners that they could not give
us the plans because the approval of the regularizations
had not yet been issued by the Municipality
Figures 10 - Churches of Chiloé: State Of Conservation - Castro
The Church of San Francisco de Castro which until recently had no conservation works.
The Mission was informed that the structure of the church now is being affected by the existing
Figures 11 - Churches of Chiloé: state of conservation - Colo
There were only some conservation works made that need to be completed.
Figures 12 - Churches of Chiloé: state of conservation – Tenaun and San Juan
Restoration works are completed and the criteria favoured modifications that were made long ago.
The church needs conservation works which was requested by community. They are involved and
active, but have problems on how to organize and manage the visiting of the chapel.
Figures 13 - Churches of Chiloé: state of conservation – Nercon and Rillan
Restoration works have recently finished. A good solution is the installation of a walk in the roofing
for better maintenance. Management structures are being organized, including a Visitors Centre.
The church was to be inaugurated in the following days. The community did minga (unpaid work). A
photo exposition shows the works that had been done and the problems that had to be faced. The
visitor Centre was also being installed.
Annex 2: Terms of reference
Joint WHC/ ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to
Churches of Chiloé (Chile) (C971)
From 03 to 06 December 2013
In accordance to Decision 37 COM 7B.94 taken by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th
session (Phnom Penh, 2013), the joint reactive monitoring mission WHC/ICOMOS will undertake
the following tasks:
Undertake a programme of visits to assess the state of conservation of the World Heritage
property, with particular attention to the following:
The review of the current protection and management arrangements for the property
and the required measures to improve the legal framework and permit granting
processes between types of preservation and institutional competences;
The update and enforcement of legislative and regulatory measures to ensure that
the defined characteristics of the wider setting are adequately protected and that new
development takes into account the visual relations between the inscribed property
and its setting;
The measures to mitigate the visual impact of the Castro shopping mall on the
component part as well as other measures to better integrate it with the existing
Carry out discussions with national authorities, as well as other relevant regional and
local authorities and other involved stakeholders, on the efficacy and adequacy of the
existing management system and ascertain potential measures for its improvement,
including the implementation of the Management Plan and necessary conservation
The definition of the characteristics of the wider setting for all component parts, in
relation to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, as well as the actions
needed to put in place appropriate protection, including the review of the buffer zones
and regulatory measures for the protection of the setting of the Churches of Chiloe;
Based on the Statement of Outstanding Universal Value adopted by the 37th session
of the World Heritage Committee, a potential course of action for the review of buffer
zones for the component parts of the property and the submission of the revised
buffer zones in accordance to paragraph 164 and Annex 11 of the Operational
Prepare a joint mission report in English or French, for review by the World Heritage Committee
at its 38th session (Doha, 2014). The report should follow the attached format and should be
submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS Headquarters in hard copy and
an electronic version for review.
Annex 3: Decisions of the World Heritage Committee
Decision of the World Heritage Committee
Churches of Chiloé (Chile) (C 971)
37 COM 7B.94
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-13/37COM/7B,
2. Takes note of the comprehensive information submitted by the State Party but regrets that the
information was submitted almost a year after having been requested;
3. Also regrets that the shopping mall was constructed, given its impact on the setting and skyline
4. Requests the State Party to invite, as soon as possible, a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS
reactive monitoring mission to address the following elements:
a) b) The review of the current protection and management arrangements for the property and
the required measures to improve the legal framework and permit granting processes
between types of preservation and institutional competences,
c) The update and enforcement of legislative and regulatory measures to ensure that the
defined characteristics of the wider setting are adequately protected and that new
development takes into account the visual relations between the inscribed property and its
The definition of the characteristics of the wider setting for all component parts, in relation
to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, and put in place appropriate protection,
including the review of the buffer zones and regulatory measures for the protection of the
setting of the Churches of Chiloe,
The measures to mitigate the visual impact of the Castro shopping mall on the component
part as well as other measures to better integrate it with the existing setting;
Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014, an
updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the
above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014.
Annex : List and contact details of people met
Consejo Monumentos Nacionales de Chile – CMN
Representante Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
Consejera Ministerio de la Vivienda y Urbanismo
Secretaria Executiva de CMN
Comisión Asesora de Monumentos Nacionales,Provincia de Chiloé
Área Patrimonio Mundial e Internacional de CMN representante CMN en la Provincia de Chiloé
Obispado de Ancud
Fundación Amigos Iglesias de
Chiloé - FUNDAICH
Comunidades de las Iglesias
Director Ejecutivo FUNDAICH
Párroco de la Iglesia de San Francisco de
Gobernador de la Provincia de Chiloé
Alcaide de la Municipalidad de Castro
Emilio de La Cerda
Falastin Shakhtur Said,
María Loreto Torres,
Magdalena Novoa, encargada del
Área de Educación y Difusión
Felipe Montiel Vera
Felipe Montiel Vera
Obispo de Ancud
Juan María Agurto
Cristian Larrére Wörner
Secretaría Regional de Ministerio de la
Vivienda y Urbanismo – Los Lagos -
Subsecretaría de Desarrollo Regional – Los
Lagos - SUBDERE
Colo, Tenaún, San Juan, Nercón, Rilán
Relacionadas a la construcción
Comunidad a favor del Mall
Misión de Monitoreo
Colegio de Arquitectos de Chile
Betina Adams ICOMOS
César Moreno-Triana WHC/LAC UNESCO
Comunidad en contra al Mall
Annex 6: Maps with the boundaries proposed by National Monuments Council – CMN
Annex 7: Press
Misión Conjunta de Monitoreo Reactivo Chiloé
Mall de Castro: Corte Suprema rechazó la solicitud de los vecinos que pedían
Desde la empresa Pasmar aseguraron que esperan inaugurar el centro comercial
dentro de los próximos 120 días.
"Como empresa hemos realizado todos los esfuerzos por regularizar los aspectos
Corte Suprema rechaza recurso de protección por construcción de Mall en
El recurso había sido presentado por juntas de vecinos y particulares de la ciudad en
contra de la inmobiliaria por desobedecer dos órdenes de paralización de la
construcción de centro comercial en la ciudad.
La Corte Suprema rechazó el recurso de protección presentado por juntas de vecinos y
particulares de la ciudad de Castro en contra de la inmobiliaria Pasmar S.A. encargada
de la construcción del Mall de Castro por desobedecer dos órdenes de paralización de
la construcción de centro comercial en la ciudad.
En fallo dividido, la Tercera Sala del máximo tribunal ratificaron la resolución de la
Corte de Apelaciones de Puerto Montt que había rechazado la acción cautelar.
La decisión de la Corte Suprema determinó luego del cumplimiento de una medida
para mejor resolver que en las circunstancias actuales el recurso de carácter cautelar
no puede prosperar para el fin de ordenar la demolición solicitada ante las
irregularidades denunciadas, atendido básicamente que existe en tramitación un
proceso administrativo sobre un nuevo permiso de edificación sin reparos actuales de
parte del Director de Obras Municipales.
La resolución se adoptó con el voto en contra de dos ministros, quienes consideraron la
empresa constructora ha incurrido en una conducta ilegal y arbitraria, al no dar
cumplimiento a las condiciones impuestas por la autoridad de manera contumaz.
Mall de Castro
Contacto telefónico con Carmen Antiñanco Pdta. Junta de Vecinos de Castro.
Mall de Castro
Corte Suprema rechaza recurso para demoler mall de Castro
Suprema rechaza recurso contra mall de Castro a días de visita patrimonial
La empresa inversionista dijo que ahora los esfuerzos irán a agilizar las obras para la
Misión de Unesco recorrerá las iglesias Patrimonio de la Humanidad de Chiloé
Radio Universidad de Chile
Observadores de Unesco revisarán carácter patrimonial de las iglesias de
Este miércoles comienza el trabajo del grupo de observadores de la Unesco que
verificará en terreno el estado de las 16 iglesias de Chiloé que tienen el rótulo de
Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Si bien existe preocupación por la situación de Castro,
con la construcción de un Centro Comercial en la zona, las organizaciones confían en
que la evaluación será positiva.
En diciembre de 2000, la Unesco nominó a catorce iglesias de Chiloé como Patrimonio
de la Humanidad, a las que luego se sumarían dos más, reconociendo de esta manera
el valor universal excepcional que representan estos monumentos construidos
íntegramente de madera.
Las 16 iglesias son parte de una escuela de arquitectura en madera construida con
una técnica singular, que combina las habilidades de los maestros locales con la
influencia de los jesuitas que iniciaron la evangelización de la isla.
Pese a los siglos, las construcciones de nuevos templos y la mantención y reparación
de otros, estas iglesias mantienen su estilo característico y, además, aun congregan a
sus comunidades y fieles, hecho que las hace diferentes de otros conjuntos como las
misiones jesuitas de Paraguay o Argentina.
Precisamente esto es lo que evaluarán los observadores de Unesco que llegarán en la
zona y que a partir de mañana revisarán el estado patrimonial de estas construcciones,
sobre todo considerando hechos como el ocurrido en Castro, donde la construcción de
un Centro Comercial ha impactado directamente el entorno de la iglesia emplazada en
Para el vocero del Movimiento Ciudadanos por Castro, Félix Oyarzún, la misión de
Unesco llega un poco tarde, pero de todas formas es una buena noticia para el lugar.
En este sentido, el representante de la organización ciudadana indicó que “ideal que
hubiese ocurrido hace un año atrás esta visita y lo que hay que valorar es que ellos
avalen un poco el valor patrimonial que tiene Castro en su casco histórico y también el
valor patrimonial que tiene en general la Isla de Chiloé”.
Uno de los trabajos que realizarían los observadores de Unesco sería proponer medidas
que mitiguen el impacto visual que ha provocado la construcción del Centro Comercial
de Castro, algo que para Oyarzún resulta imposible.
Por esto, el portavoz del movimiento ciudadano de Castro explicó que “yo creo que ya
es imposible, la única forma en se podría haber aminorado el impacto visual es que la
empresa hubiera respetado el permiso de construcción original, eso significa que
hubiese quedado dos pisos más bajo de lo que es actualmente y ahora es llorar sobre
la leche derramada. Lo que se tiene que considerar más allá del impacto visual es el
En tanto, el director de la Fundación Amigos de las Iglesias de Chiloé, Cristián Larrère,
concuerda en el impacto negativo de la construcción de este Centro Comercial, aunque
aclara que eso no debería impactar, de sobremanera, en la evaluación general que se
hará de las 16 iglesias de Chiloé.
En esa línea, el representante de la fundación ligada a las Iglesias de Chiloé dijo que
“yo creo que si bien suena bastante mediáticamente estas situaciones como el Mall de
Castro en la suma creemos que se ha hecho una labor bastante buena, no obstante
estamos expectantes en que efectivamente se nos den también las pautas y se nos
ayude a dar un mayor impulso a crear medidas de protección del bien patrimonial para
que estas situaciones como del Mall no se vuelvan a repetir”.
Cabe señalar que los observadores de la Unesco visitaron previamente la ciudad de
Valparaíso, que enfrenta un problema similar a Castro con la construcción de un Centro
Comercial en el sector de Muelle Barón, precisamente el lugar que es considerado
patrimonio mundial por la organización internacional.
Para el arquitecto de la Universidad de Valparaíso, Mario Ferrada, en conversación con
el programa “Arquitectura da que pensar” de nuestra emisora, estos hechos
demuestran la necesidad imperiosa de que el Estado se haga parte del problema
Respecto de esta deuda del Estado chileno con las construcciones patrimoniales
Ferrada indicó que “creo que las causas o lo que habría que corregir son tres aspectos,
primero que el Estado realmente asuma el rol que le corresponde respecto de los
patrimonios mundiales en Chile, significa un financiamiento especial para la
conservación, significa fortalecer a las instituciones y que el Estado esté mucho más
presente en forma permanente en estos sitios. En segundo lugar, que haya realmente
un fortalecimiento y un incentivo sin tener miedo a que la comunidad se empodere
mucho más y tome las responsabilidades del patrimonio que tiene en sus manos y
tercero fortalecer las políticas públicas”.
Los observadores de Unesco llegarán hoy a Chiloé y se espera que a partir de este
martes, desde las 9:00 de la mañana comiencen el recorrido que los llevará por las 16
iglesias patrimoniales de la isla.
Dichas iglesias se encuentran en: Achao, Aldachildo, Castro, Chonchi, Colo, Dalcahue,
Detif, Ichuac, Nercón, Quinchao, Rilán, San Juan, Tenaún, Vilupulli, Chelín y Caguach.
Si bien las organizaciones sociales confían en que el informe de los observadores será
favorable, de resultar negativo ni las iglesias, ni tampoco Valparaíso perderían su
condición de patrimonio de la humanidad, sino que se recalificarían como “patrimonios
en peligro” que obliga a tomar una serie de medidas que eviten la perdida de este
La Tercera Internet
Expertos de la Unesco llegan a Chiloé y comienzan monitoreo de iglesias
El objetivo de los expertos enviados es el de analizar las 16 iglesias declaradas
patrimonio y también sugerir mejoras para el impacto visual del Mall de Castro.
El día de ayer llegaron los dos expertos de Icomos (Consejo Internacional de
Monumentos y Sitios) enviados por la Unesco para monitorear las 16 Iglesias
declaradas Patrimonio Mundial desde el 2 al 7 de diciembre.
La misión está compuesta por la arquitecta y experta de Icomos, Betina Adams (Brasil)
y César Moreno-Triana, Encargado para Latinoamérica y el Caribe del Centro de
Según la información que entrega el Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales, el objetivo
que se ha establecido para la misión es definir las características del contexto de todas
las iglesias de la serie, la revisión de las zonas de amortiguación y las medidas
reguladoras para proteger su entorno; y además, la revisión de las actuales
disposiciones de protección y administración, junto con el mejoramiento del marco
legal y los procesos de otorgamiento de permisos.
La misión deberá además abordar medidas para mitigar el impacto visual del centro
comercial Mall de Castro, que afecta el Sitio del Patrimonio Mundial-Unesco iglesia San
Francisco de Castro. Todo esto con el fin de asegurar que las características definidas
en cuanto a los entornos estén adecuadamente protegidas y que el nuevo desarrollo
tome en cuenta las relaciones visuales entre el sitio inscrito y su entorno.
Al finalizar su visita la Misión elaborará un informe para la revisión del Comité de
Patrimonio Mundial en su 38a sesión, la cual se realizará en Qatar el 2014.
La Tercera internet
Estas son las 16 iglesias que serán monitoreadas por los expertos de la
Su estado de conservación será analizado por expertos del Consejo Internacional de
Monumentos y Sitios desde el 2 al 7 de diciembre.
El día de ayer llegó a Chiloé la misión enviada por la Unesco para monitorear las 16
iglesias declaradas Patrimonio de la Humanidad. El objetivo de la misión también
considera buscar medidas para mitigar el impacto visual del centro comercial Mall de
A continuación presentamos las iglesias que visitarán la misión, la cual está
conformada por Betina Adams (Brasil) y César Moreno-Triana, Encargado para
Latinoamérica y el Caribe del Centro de Patrimonio Mundial.
© José Porras
Iglesia de Achao
Ubicación: Plaza de Achao, Isla de Quinchao.
Patrona y Fiesta principal: Santa María de Loreto.
© Lin linao.
Iglesia de Quinchao
Ubicación: Quinchao, Isla de Quinchao. Patrona y Fiesta principal: Nuestra Señora de
© Alastair Rae from London, United Kingdom.
Iglesia de Castro
Ubicación: Plaza de Castro, Isla Grande. Patrono y Fiesta Principal: Apóstol Santiago.
© Lin linao
Iglesia de Rilán
Ubicación: Plaza de Rilán, Isla Grande. Patrono y fiesta principal: Nuestra Señora de
© Lin linao
Iglesia de Nercón
Ubicación: Nercón, Isla Grande. Patrono y fiesta principal: Virgen de la Gracia.
Iglesia de Aldachildo
Ubicación: Aldachildo, Isla Lemuy. Patrono y fiesta principal: Jesús Nazareno.
© Lin linao
Iglesia de Ichuac
Ubicación: Pueblo de Ichuac, Isla de Lemuy Patrono y fiesta principal: Virgen de la
Iglesia de Detif
Ubicación: Pueblo de Detif, Isla de Lemuy Patrono y fiesta principal: Virgen de Lourdes.
© Sarah and Iain from London, UK
Iglesia de Vilupulli
Ubicación: Pueblo de Vilupulli, Isla Grande. Patrono y fiesta principal: San Antonio.
© Cristian Bórquez (Seo2) de Santiago de Chile, Chile
Iglesia de Chonchi
Ubicación: Plaza de Chonchi, Isla Grande Patrono y fiesta principal: San Carlos
© Robert Gould
Iglesia de Tenaún
Ubicación: Pueblo de Tenaún, Isla Grande Patrono y fiesta principal: Nuestra Señora
© Guillermo Villegas B.
Iglesia de Colo
Ubicación: Pueblo de Colo, Isla Grande. Patrono y fiesta principal: San Antonio.
Iglesia de San Juan
Ubicación: Poblado de San Juan, Isla Grande. Patrono y fiesta principal: San Juan.
© Cristian Bórquez (Seo2) from Santiago de Chile, Chile
Iglesia de Dalcahue
Ubicación: Plaza de Dalcahue, Isla Grande Patrono y fiesta principal: Nuestra Señora
de los Dolores.
Iglesia de Caguach
Ubicación: Poblado de Caguach, Isla de Caguach Patrono y fiesta principal: Jesús
Iglesia de Chelín
Ubicación: Poblado de Chelín, Isla de Chelín. Patrono y fiesta principal: Nuestra Señora
La Estrella de Chiloé
Hoy comienza visita de expertos de la Unesco
La Estrella de Chiloé
Abogan porque ley considere entrega de títulos de dominio para regularizar
Misión Unesco está en Chiloé
La Estrella de Chiloé
Misión de la Unesco inicia el monitoreo reactivo de iglesias
Expertos de la Unesco observaron la construcción del mall de Castro
La Estrella de Chiloé
Intensa agenda marca visita de los expertos de la Unesco
Hoy la misión sostiene una ajetreada jornada con opositores y adherentes del mall,
como asimismo con el Grupo Pasmar.
Radio Universidad de Chile
Hoy se realizará reunión de la mesa técnica con expertos de la Unesco
Esta tarde se realizará una mesa de trabajo técnica con los personeros de la Unesco
que se apersonaron en la isla de Chiloé, con la finalidad de observar temas de interés
como las iglesias de Chiloé y la construcción del mal en Castro.
Así lo señaló el gobernador César Zambrano quien acotó además que, junto a lo
anterior, esa mesa técnica conversará sobre temas relacionados con las áreas de
protección del sitio de patrimonio mundial como las iglesias y las zonas típicas del
Otro de los puntos en carpeta está relacionado con la institucionalidad existente y que
tiene relación con el resguardo que el Estado debe tener en cuanto al patrimonio
relacionado con la Ley de Monumentos Nacionales.
“Estos dos días han sido de un intenso trabajo que refrendaremos con la reunión
técnica de este jueves. Creemos que los puntos a discutir son de suma importancia,
especialmente porque estamos convencidos que la forma de intervenir sea más
vinculante y que no aparezca como una imposición y debemos preservar nuestras
tradiciones culturales como las mingas para que los sitios patrimoniales puedan
mantenerse en el tiempo con el apoyo de las propias comunidades”, aseveró la
primera autoridad chilota.
La Estrella de Chiloé
Arquitectos piden protección global de Chiloé a la Unesco
Colectivos en pro y contra del polémico mall de Castro expusieron sus posturas a los
evaluadores de la Unesco.
La Estrella de Chiloé
Expertos de la Unesco finalizan monitoreo reactivo en Chiloé
Redactarán un informe sobre el estado de conservación de las iglesias.